Programming with SQL Relay using the Perl DBI API

Establishing a Session

To use SQL Relay, you have to identify the connection that you intend to use.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

... execute some queries ...

$dbh->disconnect;

The following connect string variables control attributes of the connection:

In addition, the following connect string variables can be used to establish Kerberos or Active Directory encryption and authentication with the server:

See the SQL Relay Configuration Guide for more information about Kerberos and Active Directory configurations. In particular, user and password are not typically used when using Kerberos/AD.

The following connect string variables can be used to establish TLS/SSL encryption and authentication with the server:

See the SQL Relay Configuration Guide for more information about TLS/SSL configurations.

Note that the supported tlscert and tlsca file formats may vary between platforms. A variety of file formats are generally supported on Linux/Unix platfoms (.pem, .pfx, etc.) but only the .pfx format is currently supported on Windows.

Database handle attributes may be specified in the SQLRelay component of the connect string to control connection and statement behavior. For example:

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay(AutoCommit=>0,PrintError=>0):host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword"); 

In addition to the standard database handle attributes (such as AutoCommit, PrintError, etc.), these additional connect string variables control some default statement attributes:

Setting one of the statement attribute connect string variables has the same effect as if the corresponding statement handle attribute were set immediately after creating each statement. See Driver-Specific Attributes below.

The other two parameters following the connect string are.

After calling the constructor, a session is established when the first query or other operation is run, unless lazyconnect=0 is used, in which case a session is established immediately.

For the duration of the session, the client occupies one of the database connections, so care should be taken to minimize the length of a session.

Executing Queries

Call prepare() and execute() to run a query.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from user_tables");

$sth->execute();

... process the result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

Commits and Rollbacks

If you need to execute a commit or rollback, you should use the commit() and rollback() methods rather than sending a "commit" or "rollback" query. There are two reasons for this. First, it's much more efficient to call the methods. Second, if you're writing code that can run on transactional or non-transactional databases, some non-transactional databases will throw errors if they receive a "commit" or "rollback" query, but by calling the commit() and rollback() methods you instruct the database connection daemon to call the commit and rollback API methods for that database rather than issuing them as queries. If the API's have no commit or rollback methods, the calls do nothing and the database throws no error.

You can also turn Autocommit on or off by setting the AutoCommit attribute of the database handle.

The following command turns Autocommit on.

$dbh->{AutoCommit} = 1;

The following command turns Autocommit off.

$dbh->{AutoCommit} = 0;

When Autocommit is on, the database performs a commit after each successful DML or DDL query. When Autocommit is off, the database commits when the client instructs it to, or (by default) when a client disconnects. For databases that don't support Autocommit, setting the AutoCommit attribute has no effect.

Temporary Tables

Some databases support temporary tables. That is, tables which are automatically dropped or truncated when an application closes its connection to the database or when a transaction is committed or rolled back.

For databases which drop or truncate tables when a transaction is committed or rolled back, temporary tables work naturally.

However, for databases which drop or truncate tables when an application closes its connection to the database, there is an issue. Since SQL Relay maintains persistent database connections, when an application disconnects from SQL Relay, the connection between SQL Relay and the database remains, so the database does not know to drop or truncate the table. To remedy this situation, SQL Relay parses each query to see if it created a temporary table, keeps a list of temporary tables and drops (or truncates them) when the application disconnects from SQL Relay. Since each database has slightly different syntax for creating a temporary table, SQL Relay parses each query according to the rules for that database.

In effect, temporary tables should work when an application connects to SQL Relay in the same manner that they would work if the application connected directly to the database.

Catching Errors

If your calls to connect(), prepare() or execute() fail, you can catch the error in DBI->errstr.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword")
        or die DBI->errstr;

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from user_tables")
        or die DBI->errstr;

$sth->execute()
        or die DBI->errstr;

... process the result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

Bind Variables

Programs rarely execute fixed queries. More often than not, some part of the query is dynamically generated. The Perl DBI API provides means for using bind variables in those queries.

For a detailed discussion of binds, see this document.

Here is an example using the bind_param() function. The first parameter of the bind_param() function corresponds to the name or position of the bind variable.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from my_table where col1=:1 and col2=:2 and col3=:3");

$sth->bind_param(1,"hello");
$sth->bind_param(2,1);
$sth->bind_param(3,5.5);

$sth->execute();

... process the result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

The precision and scale parameters can be used to specify a precision and scale for floating point numbers.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("insert into mytable values (:floatval)");

$sth->bind_param(":floatval,5.5,{precision=>10,scale=>3});

$sth->execute();

... process the result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;
You can also bind CLOB's and BLOB's using the DBD
SQLRelay::SQL_CLOB and DBD::SQLRelay::SQL_BLOB extensions. When binding a BLOB, you need to pass a hash containing type and length values.
#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("insert into mytable values (:clobval,:blobval)");

$sth->bind_param(":clobval","test clob",DBD::SQLRelay::SQL_CLOB);
$sth->bind_param(":blobval","test blob",{type=>DBD::SQLRelay::SQL_BLOB,length=>9});

$sth->execute();

... process the result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

bind_param() is used for input binds. bind_inout_param() is used for output binds. Here is an example using the bind_inout_param() function to retrieve a value from a query. The first parameter of a bind_inout_param() call is the name or position of the bind variable, the second parameter is the local variable to return the result in and the third variable is the size of the buffer to reserve for the value.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("begin; :1='hello'; :2=1; :3=5.5; end;");

my $hello;
my $integer;
my $float;
$sth->bind_inout_param(1,\$hello,10);
$sth->bind_inout_param(2,\$integer,10);
$sth->bind_inout_param(3,\$float,10);

$sth->execute();

print("$hello $integer $float\n");

$dbh->disconnect;

Here is an example using the execute() function directly. The additional parameters correspond to bind variable positions. Note that the first parameter must be "undef".

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from my_table where col1=:0 and col2=:1 and col3=:2");

$sth->execute(undef,"hello",1,5.5);

... process the result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

Re-Binding and Re-Execution

A feature of the prepare/bind/execute paradigm is the ability to prepare, bind and execute a query once, then re-bind and re-execute the query over and over without re-preparing it. If your backend database natively supports this paradigm, you can reap a substantial performance improvement.

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from my_table where col1=:0 and col2=:1 and col3=:2");

$sth->execute(undef,"hello",1,1.1);

... process result set ...

$sth->execute(undef,"hi",2,2.2);

... process result set ...

$sth->execute(undef,"goodbye",3,3.3);

... process result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

Accessing Fields in the Result Set

The fetchrow_array(), bind_columns() and fetch() functions are useful for processing result sets. fetchrow_array() returns an array of values. bind_columns() associates variables with columns which are set when fetch() is called.

Here's an example using fetchrow_array().

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from user_tables");

$sth->execute();

while (@data=$sth->fetchrow_array()) {
        
        foreach $col (@data) {
                print "\"$col\",";
        }
        print "\n";
}

$dbh->disconnect;

Here's an example using bind_columns() and fetch(). Note that the first bind_columns() parameter must be "undef".

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from my_table");

$sth->execute();
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$col1,\$col2,\$col3,\$col4);

while ($sth->fetch()) {
        print "$col, $col2, $col3, $col4\n";
}

$dbh->disconnect;

Dealing With Large Result Sets

SQL Relay normally buffers the entire result set. This can speed things up at the cost of memory. With large enough result sets, it makes sense to buffer the result set in chunks instead of all at once.

Perl DBI provides a RowCacheSize database handle attribute to control the numer of rows to buffer at a time. This attribute may be specified in the connect string or as a database handle attribute prior to the execution of a query. If left undefined or set to -1 then the entire result set will be buffered. If set to 0 then the driver will decide how many rows to buffer. If set to a specific number other than 0 or -1 then that many rows will be buffered.

The statement handle attribute DBD
SQLRelay::ResultSetBufferSize may also be used to set the number of rows to buffer at a time. This attribute is a little more flexible because as a statement handle attribute it can be altered after prepare but before execute, or in between executes. It can also be specified in the connect string.

When buffering the result set in chunks, calls to fetch() cause the chunk containing the requested field to be fetched. Rows in that chunk are accessible but rows before it are not.

For example, if you set the result set buffer size to 5 and execute a query that returns 20 rows, rows 0-4 are available at once, then rows 5-9, then 10-14, then 15-19. When rows 5-9 are available, fetching row 0 will return false and fetching row 11 will cause rows 10-14 to be fetched and return the requested row.

The following code sets the result set buffer size using RowCacheSize in the connect string.

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay(RowCacheSize=>5):host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

The following code sets the result set buffer size using RowCacheSize to 5.

$dbh->{RowCacheSize}=5;

The following code retrieves the result set buffer size using RowCacheSize.

$rsbs=$dbh->{RowCacheSize};

The following code sets the result set buffer size using ResultSetBufferSize

in the connect string.

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay(DBD::SQLRelay::ResultSetBufferSize=>5):host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

The following code sets the result set buffer size using ResultSetBufferSize to 5.

$sth->{DBD::SQLRelay::ResultSetBufferSize}=5;

The following code retrieves the result set buffer size using ResultSetBufferSize.

$rsbs=$sth->{DBD::SQLRelay::ResultSetBufferSize};

Statements

It's possible to execute new queries while processing the result set of another query. You can select rows from a table in one query, then iterate through its result set, inserting rows into another table, using only 1 database connection for both operations.

For example:

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from my_table where col1=:0 and col2=:1 and col3=:2");

$sth->execute(undef,"hello",1,1.1);

... process result set ...

$sth->execute(undef,"hi",2,2.2);

... process result set ...

$sth->execute(undef,"goodbye",3,3.3);

... process result set ...

$dbh->disconnect;

Getting Column Information

After executing a query, the column count is stored in the NUMBER_OF_FIELDS statement property and column names are stored in the NAME statement property. They are accessible as follows:

#!/usr/bin/env perl

use DBI;

my $dbh=DBI->connect("DBI:SQLRelay:host=sqlrserver;port=9000;socket=/tmp/test.socket;tries=0;retrytime=1;debug=0","testuser","testpassword");

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from my_table");

$sth->execute();

for ($i=1; $i<=$sth->{NUM_OF_FIELDS}; $i++) {
       print "Column $i: $sth->{NAME}->[$i-1]\n";
}

$dbh->disconnect;

Stored Procedures

Many databases support stored procedures. Stored procedures are sets of queries and procedural code that are executed inside of the database itself. For example, a stored procedure may select rows from one table, iterate through the result set and, based on the values in each row, insert, update or delete rows in other tables. A client program could do this as well, but a stored procedure is generally more efficient because queries and result sets don't have to be sent back and forth between the client and database. Also, stored procedures are generally stored in the database in a compiled state, while queries may have to be re-parsed and re-compiled each time they are sent.

While many databases support stored procedures. The syntax for creating and executing stored procedures varies greatly between databases.

Stored procedures typically take input paramters from client programs through input bind variables and return values back to client programs either through bind variables or result sets. Stored procedures can be broken down into several categories, based on the values that they return. Some stored procedures don't return any values, some return a single value, some return multiple values and some return entire result sets.

No Values

Some stored procedures don't return any values. Below are examples, illustrating how to create, execute and drop this kind of stored procedure for each database that SQL Relay supports.

Oracle

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in1 in number, in2 in number, in3 in varchar2) is
begin
        insert into mytable values (in1,in2,in3);
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth->$dbh->prepare("begin testproc(:in1,:in2,:in3); end;");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc @in1 int, @in2 float, @in3 varchar(20) as
        insert into mytable values (@in1,@in2,@in3)

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth->$dbh->prepare("exec testproc");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Firebird

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in1 integer, in2 float, in3 varchar(20)) as
begin
        insert into mytable values (in1,in2,in3);
        suspend;
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("execute procedure testproc ?, ?, ?");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

DB2

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in in1 int, in in2 double, in in3 varchar(20)) language sql
begin
        insert into mytable values (in1,in2,in3);
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("call testproc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Postgresql

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create function testfunc(int,float,varchar(20)) returns void as '
begin
        insert into mytable values ($1,$2,$3);
        return;
end;' language plpgsql

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select testfunc($1,$2,$3)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop function testfunc(int,float,varchar(20))

MySQL

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in in1 int, in in2 float, in in3 varchar(20))
begin
        insert into mytable values (in1,in2,in3);
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select testfunc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,4,2);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();

Note: Versions of MySQL prior to 5.0 had trouble calling stored procedures using bind variables. If you are using a version of MySQL prior to 5.0 then SQL relay must fake the bind variables and you must use colon-delimited variables (:1, :2, :3, etc.) in your queries rather than the native-mysql queston marks.

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Single Values

Some stored procedures return single values. Below are examples, illustrating how to create, execute and drop this kind of stored procedure for each database that SQL Relay supports.

Oracle

In Oracle, stored procedures can return values through output parameters or as return values of the procedure itself.

Here is an example where the procedure itself returns a value. Note that Oracle calls these functions.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create function testproc(in1 in number, in2 in number, in3 in varchar2) returns number is
begin
        return in1;
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select testproc(:in1,:in2,:in3) from dual");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $result;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$result);
$sth->fetch();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Here is an example where the value is returned through an output parameter.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in1 in number, in2 in number, in3 in varchar2, out1 out number) as
begin
        out1:=in1;
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("begin testproc(:in1,:in2,:in3,:out1); end;");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
my $result;
$sth->bind_inout_param("out1",\$result,20);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server

In Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server, stored procedures return values through output parameters rather than as return values of the procedure itself.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc @in1 int, @in2 float, @in3 varchar(20), @out1 int output as
        select @out1=convert(varchar(20),@in1)

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dth->prepare("exec testproc");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
my $result;
$sth->bind_inout_param("out1",\$result,20);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Firebird

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dth->prepare("select * from testproc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $result;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$result);
$sth->fetch();

Alternatively, you can run a query like the following and receive the result using an output bind variable. Note that in Firebird, input and output bind variable indices are distict from one another. The index of the output bind variable is 1 rather than 4, even though there were 3 input bind variables.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("execute procedure testproc ?, ?, ?");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
my $result;
$sth->bind_inout_param("1",\$result,20);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

DB2

In DB2, stored procedures return values through output parameters rather than as return values of the procedure itself.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in in1 int, in in2 double, in in3 varchar(20), out out1 int) language sql
begin
        set out1 = in1;
end

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("call testproc(?,?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
my $result;
$sth->bind_inout_param("4",\$result,25);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Postgresql

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create function testfunc(int,float,char(20)) returns int as '
declare
        in1 int;
        in2 float;
        in3 char(20);
begin
        in1:=$1;
        return;
end;
' language plpgsql

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from testfunc($1,$2,$3)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,4,2);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $result;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$result);
$sth->fetch();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop function testfunc(int,float,char(20))

MySQL

A single value can be returned from a MySQL function.

To create the function, run a query like the following.

create function testfunc(in in1 int, in in2 float, in in3 varchar(20)) returns int return in1;

To execute the function from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select testfunc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,4,2);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1);
$sth->fetch();

Note: Versions of MySQL prior to 5.0 had trouble calling stored procedures using bind variables. If you are using a version of MySQL prior to 5.0 then SQL relay must fake the bind variables and you must use colon-delimited variables (:1, :2, :3, etc.) in your queries rather than the native-mysql queston marks.

To drop the function, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

A single value can be returned in the result set of a MySQL procedure.

To create the procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc() begin select 1; end;

To execeute the procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select testproc()");
$sth->execute();
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1);
$sth->fetch();

To drop the procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

A single value can be returned using the output variable of a MySQL procedure.

To create the procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(out out1 int) begin select 1 into out1; end;

To execeute the procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select \@out1=0");
$sth->execute();
my $sth=$dbh->prepare("call testproc(\@out1)");
$sth->execute();
my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select \@out1");
$sth->execute();
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1);
$sth->fetch();

To drop the procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Multiple Values

Some stored procedures return multiple values. Below are examples, illustrating how to create, execute and drop this kind of stored procedure for each database that SQL Relay supports.

Oracle

In Oracle, stored procedures can return values through output parameters or as return values of the procedure itself. If a procedure needs to return multiple values, it can return one of them as the return value of the procedure itself, but the rest must be returned through output parameters.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in1 in number, in2 in number, in3 in varchar2, out1 out number, out2 out number, out3 out varchar2) is
begin
        out1:=in1;
        out2:=in2;
        out3:=in3;
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("begin testproc(:in1,:in2,:in3,:out1,:out2,:out3); end;");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_input_param("out1",\$out1,20);
$sth->bind_input_param("out2",\$out2,20);
$sth->bind_input_param("out3",\$out3,20);

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc @in1 int, @in2 float, @in3 varchar(20), @out1 int output, @out2 int output, @out3 int output as
        select @out1=convert(varchar(20),@in1),
                @out2=convert(varchar(20),@in2),
                @out2=convert(varchar(20),@in2)

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dth->prepare("exec testproc");
$sth->bind_param("in1",1);
$sth->bind_param("in2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("in3","hello");
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_inout_param("out1",\$out1,20);
$sth->bind_inout_param("out2",\$out2,20);
$sth->bind_inout_param("out3",\$out3,20);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Firebird

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in1 integer, in2 float, in3 varchar(20)) returns (out1 integer, out2 float, out3 varchar(20)) as
begin
        out1=in1;
        out2=in2;
        out3=in3;
        suspend;
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dth->prepare("select * from testproc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1,\$out1,\$out3);
$sth->fetch();

Alternatively, you can run a query like the following and receive the result using a output bind variables. Note that in Firebird, input and output bind variable indices are distict from one another. The index of the first output bind variable is 1 rather than 4, even though there were 3 input bind variables.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("execute procedure testproc ?, ?, ?");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_inout_param("1",\$out1,20);
$sth->bind_inout_param("2",\$out2,20);
$sth->bind_inout_param("3",\$out3,20);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

DB2

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in in1 int, in in2 double, in in3 varchar(20), out out1 int, out out2 double, out out3 varchar(20)) language sql
begin
        set out1 = in1;
        set out2 = in2;
        set out3 = in3;
end

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("call testproc(?,?,?,?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,2,1);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_inout_param("4",\$out1,25);
$sth->bind_inout_param("5",\$out2,25);
$sth->bind_inout_param("6",\$out3,25);
$sth->execute();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Postgresql

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create function testfunc(int,float,char(20)) returns record as '
declare
        output record;
begin
        select $1,$2,$3 into output;
        return output;
end;
' language plpgsql

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from testfunc($1,$2,$3) as (col1 int, col2 float, col3 char(20))");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,4,2);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1,\$out2,\$out3);
$sth->fetch();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop function testfunc(int,float,char(20))

MySQL

Here's how you can get multiple values from the result set of a MySQL procedure.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(in in1 int, in in2 float, in in3 varchar(20)) begin select in1, in2, in3; end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("call testproc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,4,2);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1,\$out2,\$out3);
$sth->fetch();

Note: Versions of MySQL prior to 5.0 had trouble calling stored procedures using bind variables. If you are using a version of MySQL prior to 5.0 then SQL relay must fake the bind variables and you must use colon-delimited variables (:1, :2, :3, etc.) in your queries rather than the native-mysql queston marks.

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Here's how you can get multiple values from the output variables of a MySQL procedure.

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc(out out1 int, out out2 float, out out3 varchar(20)) begin select 1,1.1,'hello' into out1, out2, out3; end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("set \@out1=0, \@out2=0.0, \@out3='')");
$sth->execute();
$sth=$dbh->prepare("call testproc(\@out1,\@out2,\@out3)");
$sth->execute();
$sth=$dbh->prepare("select \@out1,\@out2,\@out3");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1,\$out2,\$out3);
$sth->fetch();

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Result Sets

Some stored procedures return entire result sets. Below are examples, illustrating how to create, execute and drop this kind of stored procedure for each database that SQL Relay supports.

Oracle

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create or replace package types as
        type cursorType is ref cursor;
end;

create function testproc return types.cursortype is
        l_cursor    types.cursorType;
begin
        open l_cursor for select * from mytable;
        return l_cursor;
end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

@parts/perldbi-oracle-testproc-result-set.pl@

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop function testproc
drop package types

Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc as select * from testtable

To exceute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, ue code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepareQuery("exec testproc");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1,\$out2,\$out3);
while ($sth->fetch()) {
        print "$out1, $out2, $out3\n";
}

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc

Firebird

Stored procedures in Firebird can return a result set if a select query in the procedure selects values into the output parameters and then issues a suspend command, however SQL Relay doesn't currently support stored procedures that return result sets.

DB2

Stored procedures in DB2 can return a result set if the procedure is declared to return one, however SQL Relay doesn't currently support stored procedures that return result sets.

Postgresql

To create the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

create function testfunc() returns setof record as '
        declare output record;
begin
        for output in select * from mytable loop
                return next output;
        end loop;
        return;
end;
' language plpgsql

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepare("select * from testfunc() as (testint int, testfloat float, testchar char(40))");
$sth->execute();
my $col1;
my $col2;
my $col3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$col1,\$col2,\$col3);
while ($sth->fetch()) {
        print "$col1, $col2, $col3\n";
}

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop function testfunc

MySQL

The result sets of all select statements called within MySQL stored procedures (that aren't selected into variables) are returned from the procedure call. Though MySQL stored procedures can return multiple result sets, currently SQL Relay can only fetch the first result set.

To create the stored procedure which returns a result set, run a query like the following.

create procedure testproc() begin select * from mytable; end;

To execute the stored procedure from an SQL Relay program, use code like the following.

my $sth=$dbh->prepareQuery("call testproc(?,?,?)");
$sth->bind_param("1",1);
$sth->bind_param("2",1.1,4,2);
$sth->bind_param("3","hello");
$sth->execute();
my $out1;
my $out2;
my $out3;
$sth->bind_columns(undef,\$out1,\$out2,\$out3);
while ($sth->fetch()) {
        print "$out1, $out2, $out3\n";
}

To drop the stored procedure, run a query like the following.

drop procedure testproc


Getting the Last Insert ID

Databases with autoincrement or identity columns often provide functions which return the "last insert id"; the value of the autoincrement column that was generated during the insert into the database.

DBI provides the $dbh->last_insert_id() method to get this value.

When using the SQLite database, you can also get the last insert id by running the query:

select last insert rowid

Driver-Specific Attributes

Perl DBI allows drivers to define their own attributes for database handles and statements. These attributes can be set to control various parameters unique to the driver. SQL Relay implements several of these.

Database handle attributes defined by the SQL Relay driver:

Statement handle attributes defined by the SQL Relay driver:

Default values for the statement handle attributes can be set as database handle attributes in the connect string. Setting the corresponding connect string variable has the same effect as if the statement handle attribute were set immediately after creating the statement. See Establishing a Session above.